Sunday, January 30, 2011


We are now living in a world driven by various electronic
equipments. Semiconductors form the fundamental building blocks
of the modern electronic world providing the brains and the memory
of products all around us from washing machines to super
computers. Semi conductors consist of array of transistors with each
transistor being a simple switch between electrical 0 and 1. Now
often bundled together in there 10’s of millions they form highly
complex, intelligent, reliable semiconductor chips, which are small
and cheap enough for proliferation into products all around us.
Identification of new materials has been, and still is, the
primary means in the development of next generation
semiconductors. For the past 30 years, relentless scaling of CMOS IC
technology to smaller dimensions has enabled the continual
introduction of complex microelectronics system functions. However,
this trend is not likely to continue indefinitely beyond the
semiconductor technology roadmap. As silicon technology
approaches its material limit, and as we reach the end of the
roadmap, an understanding of emerging research devices will be of
foremost importance in the identification of new materials to address
the corresponding technological requirements.
If scaling is to continue to and below the 65nm node,
alternatives to CMOS designs will be needed to provide a path to
device scaling beyond the end of the roadmap. However, these
emerging research technologies will be faced with an uphill
technology challenge. For digital applications, these challenges
include exponentially increasing the leakage current (gate, channel,
and source/drain junctions), short channel effects, etc. while for
analogue or RF applications, among the challenges are sustained
linearity, low noise figure, power added efficiency and transistor
matching. One of the fundamental approaches to manage this
challenge is using new materials to build the next generation

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